Centrosolenia currently includes 15 species that are endemic to the Guiana Shield in northern South America. Most species are found growing on the shady banks of rivers and streams, in crevices or on wet, mossy rock and in the understory of the rain forests. In the Guiana region, they predominantly inhabit the slopes of the high tepuis (table mountains), the summit areas of low-elevation tepuis, or the understory of the forested high plains, between 300 and 1500 meters.
Species are often distinguished from other members of the Paradrymonia alliance by paired leaves equal or close to equal in size (especially in short-stemmed species or those with a rosette at the end of a stem), or in the longer stemmed species (still with equal or subequal leaves) by a narrow, tubular corolla much longer than broad.
Many species have distinctly marked or patterned foliage as juveniles.